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Regenerated Cellulose Sponge as Sacrificial Template for the Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Porous Alumina-Silica Scaffold for Tissue Engineering


Tissue engineering has emerged as a multidisciplinary field that aims to improve health and quality of life by restoring, maintaining and improving the functions of tissues and organs. Cells and scaffolds are the two major components of tissue engineering. Different cell lines can be used depending on the tissue from which they will be isolated from and the damaged site where the scaffold will be applied on. Scaffolds act as a support for cells, thus facilitating cell adhesion, proliferation, morphogenesis, differentiation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) production. Once three-dimension (3D) porous scaffolds can better simulate the native three-dimensional architecture of in vivo systems than conventional 2D cultures, they are able to support tissue regeneration. A desirable biomaterial to be used as scaffold must be biocompatible and provide a variety of shapes and sizes, and also be tough enough to be used in locations where there is impact load.

Objetivos - Metodologia - Resultados - Discussão dos Resultados/Objectives - Methodology - Results - Discussion of Results/Objetivos - Metodología - Resultados - Discusión de los resultados

This study aimed to use regenerated cellulose sponge as sacrificial template for the synthesis of three-dimensional porous alumina (Al2O3) - silica (SiO2) scaffold from boehmite-GPTS (glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane) sols for issue engineering application. Boehmite sol was prepared by Gieselmann (1989) methodology, by hydrolyzing aluminum-tri-sec-butoxide in distilled water at 83°C. In order to obtain the hybrid sol, GPTS was added to the boehmite sol under vigorous stirring. Regenerated cellulose sponge was coated with the boehmite-GPTS sol. Drying was performed at 60°C for 12h. Finally, regenerated cellulose sponge coated with the boehmite-GPTS sol was converted into porous alumina-silica scaffold via thermal treatment at 500°C for 4h in air. Regenerated cellulose and the resulting products have been characterized by Fourier transform‐infrared (FT‐IR), optical microscopy, X‐ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT), nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, and aluminium-27 and silicon-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Taken together, the analysis results indicate that regenerated cellulose was properly covered by boehmite-GPTS and that after thermal treatment, cellulose was eliminated and there was conversion of the hybrid into an alumina-silica porous matrix.

Considerações Finais/Final considerations/Consideraciones finales

Regenerated cellulose sponge was used as sacrificial template in order to obtain porous alumina-silica scaffold. This approach appears as a viable alternative to produce a wide range of three-dimensional scaffolds in a variety of shapes for tissue engineering application.

Palavras-chave/Key words/Palabras clave

Tissue Engineering, Scaffold, Regenerated Cellulose Sponge


Scaffold (surface topology and softness)


AMANDA MARIA CLARO, Caroline Cássia Alves, Rafael M. Sábio, José Maurício A. Caiut , Sidney J. L. Ribeiro, Hernane S. Barud